The first involved a man from Ireland ,  while the more recent incident occurred when a Swiss teenager was left with second and third degree burns in her thigh caused by her phone's explosion. In October , Samsung acknowledged swelling and overheating issues with the Li-ion batteries in many S III phones, and offered replacement batteries for affected devices. Within a month of the London unveiling, auction and shopping website eBay noted a percent increase in second-hand Android phone sales. According to an eBay spokesperson, this was "the first time anything other than an Apple product has sparked such a selling frenzy.
A manufacturing flaw resulted in a large portion of the new smartphones having irregularities with the "hyper-glazing" process. The mistake caused an undesirable finish on the blue back covers and resulted in the disposal of up to , plastic casings and a shortage of the blue model. Analysts deduced that the slump in iPhone sales was due to customers' anticipation of the iPhone 5.
Critics noted the phone's blend of features, such as its S Voice application, display, processing speed, and dimensions as having an edge over its competition, the Apple iPhone 4S and HTC One X. Conversely, reviewers have opined on the design and feel of phone, calling its polycarbonate shell "cheap"  and having a "slippery feel". In late-September TechRadar ranked it as the No. Apple requested that the court include the phone in its existing legal battle against Samsung see Apple Inc. Samsung Electronics Co. Samsung countered with the statement: "Apple continues to resort to litigation over market competition in an effort to limit consumer choice.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Samsung Electronics. Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 6 May Haymarket Media Group.
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Retrieved 7 August Even where the individual is aware of the problem, they commonly lack the expertise and the institutional power to force corrective actions. So individuals generally have to bear the consequences. The techniques applied to Big Data are a complex mix of pattern matching, Bayesian inference and other automated deductive algorithms. As a result, it is rare that the resulting inferences can be explained in a manner understandable to normal people, and a coherent, logical justification for many inferences simply cannot be expressed.
Before such inferences are used to make decisions and to take significant actions, they need to be empirically tested. On the other hand, testing costs money, incurs delays, and can undermine business models. It also lacks the emotive appeal of the magical distillation of information from data. So the truth-value of the inferences tends to be assumed rather than demonstrated, and the outcomes are judged against criteria dreamt up by proponents of the technology or of its application.
Analytical integrity is regarded as being of little or no significance. An appearance of success is sufficient to justify the use of data mining, whether or not the outcomes can be demonstrated to be effective against an appropriate external measuring stick. The exploitation of these intensive data collections gives rise to concerns about the legal and logical justification for the activities, quality controls over data management, the applicability of the analytical techniques used, and the lack of external standards for evaluating results.
The following section outlines some specific categories of Big Data, in order to provide an empirical base from which further assessment of the consequences can be undertaken. Big Data Contexts This section reviews some longstanding instances of Big Data, and then moves on to more recent and still-emergent forms. In some cases, the example in itself involves a relatively coherent data-set, whereas others involve a melange of sources. All, however, are amenable to integration with other sources to generate Bigger Data collections.
Important among them were the consolidation of databases, and the merger of organisations. The scale of data involved has proven challenging, but smaller countries such as Denmark, Finland and Malaysia have achieved considerable concentration, supported by the imposition of a comprehensive national identification scheme. Key government agencies in Australia have spent the last quarter-century endeavoring to achieve the same kind of consolidation.
Since , all of the c. In , that agency was merged with the operator of the national health insurance and pharmaceutical benefits schemes into a Department of Human Services with the ominous initials DHS. Recently, steps have been taken to bring all Australian health databases within the reach of the Department of Health, utilising an identifier managed not by that Department, but by DHS. Agencies in Australia have thereby made a complete mockery of data protection laws, have done everything possible to override the public's strongly-expressed opposition to a national identification scheme, and have enabled cross-agency data consolidation, warehousing and mining.
In various countries, interactions with government have increasingly been consolidated onto a single identifier, in an attempt to deny the legality of multiple identities, and to destroy the protection that data silos and identity silos once provided Clarke , Wigan The bureaucratic desire is for a singular identity per person, undeniable, unrepudiable, and outside the control of the individual.
Some mostly small governments have funded schemes that go some way towards their heaven, and their citizens' hell. A number have tried and failed. This has fed into customer relationship management CRM systems, which are argued by some to be the most significant initial Big Data application in the commercial sector Ngai et al. Data derived from these sources can be combined with that from the micro-monitoring of the movements and actions of individual shoppers on retailers' premises and web-sites.
Building on that data, consumer behavior can be manipulated not only through targeted and timed advertising and promotions, but also by means of dynamic pricing - where the price offered is not necessarily to the advantage of the buyer. Google has amassed vast quantities of data about users of its search facilities, and progressively of other services.
The company's acquisition, retention and exploitation of all Gmail traffic has enabled it to build archives of the communications not only of its users but also of its users' correspondents. Since about , users of social networking services and other social media have gifted to a range of corporations, but most substantially Facebook, a huge amount of content that is variously factual, inaccurate, salacious, malicious, and sheer fantasy.
Users understood that they were paying for the services by accepting advertisements in their browser-windows; but very few appreciated how extensive the accumulation, use and disclosure of their data was to become. Many people do not perceive this to be part of the consideration that they offer the service-provider. Issues arise in relation to users' data, such as the question of informed consent for use and disclosure, retention even after the account is closed , subject access to the data, and the adequacy of the consideration provided.
Much of the data, however, is also about, and even exclusively about, the users' colleagues, friends and others who they come into contact with.
Vast amounts of personal data are being gathered and exploited, without quality controls, and without the consent of the individuals to whom that data relates. The individual who volunteers such data has moral responsibilities in relation to their actions, but little or no legal responsibility. The service-providers, meanwhile, use variously obscurity, data havens, jurisdictional arbitrage and market power to escape data protection laws. Almost all social media providers rely on venture capital support to become established, and advertising revenue after that. Market-share is currently dominated by two players, and it is accordingly necessary to pay particular attention to them.
Google's revenue-stream is entirely dependent on the skill with which it has applied Big Data techniques to target advertisements and thereby to both divert advertising spend to the Web and to achieve the dominant share in that market. In the case of Facebook, the corporation's initial market valuation was based on the assumption that it could gain similarly spectacular advertising revenues. As any new market structure matures, consolidation occurs. The decades of work conducted by consumer profiling corporations, out of sight and in the background, has been complemented by the transaction-based content, trails and social networks generated by social media corporations.
Mergers of old and new databases are inevitable - and in the USA there are few legal constraints on corporate exploitation of and trafficking in personal data. This appears likely to be achieved by the cash-rich Internet companies taking over key profiling companies in the same way in which they have taken over key players in other parallel markets. Just as Microsoft saw advantage in acquiring Skype, Acxiom is a natural target for Google. Analysts have documented various examples of new kinds of inferences that can be drawn from this vast volume of data, along the lines of 'your social media service knows you're pregnant before your father does'.
Such inferences arise from the application of 'predictive analytics' developed in loyalty contexts Duhigg , but become much more threatening when they move beyond a specific consumer-supplier relationship. To marketers, this is a treasure-trove. To individuals, it's a morass of hidden knowledge whose exposure will have some seriously negative consequences.
Some harmful inferences will arise from what could be shown to be, if careful analysis were undertaken, false matches. In other cases, ambiguities will provide fertile ground for speculation, innuendo and the exercise of pre-existing biasses for, and particularly against, racial, ethnic, religious and socio-economic stereotypes. RFID Radio Frequency Identification tags are already widespread, and have extended beyond the industry value-chain, not only in packaging, but also in consumer items themselves, notably clothing.
RFID has also been applied to public transport ticketing, and to road-toll payment mechanisms. The use of RFID tags in books was a particularly chilling development, representing as it does a means of extending surveillance far beyond mere consumption behavior towards social and political choices, attitudes and even values.
RFID product-tags are not inherently associated with an individual, but can become so in a variety of ways. The rich trail associated with a commonly-carried item, such as a purse or wallet, is sufficient to render superfluous a name-and-address or a company id-code. Meanwhile, many of the applications of RFID in transport have had identification of the user designed-in, in some cases by requiring the person's identity as a condition of discounted purchase, and in others by ensuring that payment is made at least once by inherently identified means such as credit-cards and debit-cards.
RFID tags in clothing enable tracking of the within-shop movement of both the clothing and the individuals wearing them or taking them into change-cubicles. These trails are capable of being associated with the individual, e. Elsewhere, the 'intelligent transport' movement has given rise to the monitoring of cars. This generates intensive trails, which are closely associated with individuals, and are available to a variety of organisations. The threats involved have penetrated far enough into public consciousness that wallets that provide shielding of RFID chips are now readily procureable.
Some forms of visual surveillance also give rise to data that is directly or indirectly, but reasonably reliably, associated with one or more individuals. One of the elements of 'intelligent transport' is crash cameras in cars, which may be imposed as a condition of purchase or hire.
Like so many other data trails, the data may be used for purposes additional to its nominal purpose accident investigation , and with or without informed, freely-given and granular consent. Automated Number Plate Recognition ANPR has been expanded far beyond its nominal purpose of traffic management, to provide, in the UK but gradually some other countries as well, vast mass transport surveillance databases. Devices that use cellular and Wifi networks are locatable not merely within a cell, but within a small area within that cell, by a variety of means.
Disclosure by the device of its cell-location is intrinsic to network operation; but networks have been designed to deliver much more precise positional data, extraneous to network operations and intended to 'value-add' - in some cases for the individual, but in all cases for other parties. Devices and apps, meanwhile, have been designed to be promiscuous with location data, mostly without an effective consent. This has implications not only for each individual's ability to exercise self-determination, but also for their physical safety. In less than a decade, the explosion in smartphone usage has resulted in almost the entire population in many countries having been recruited as unpaid, high-volume suppliers of highly-detailed data about their locations and activities.
This data is of a highly personal and intrusive level even before being combined with loyalty card data, with marketers' many longstanding, surreptitious sources of consumer data, and with the locations and activities of other people. On the other hand, some elements have arrived, and the monitoring of energy consumption is one of them.
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Smart meter data, although nominally for consumers, is essentially about consumers and for energy providers. In accordance with the 'warm frog' principle, monitoring has been initially only infrequent, and the capacity of the provider to take action based on the data has been constrained.
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Intrinsic to most designs, however, are highly intensive monitoring, and direct intervention by the provider into power-supply to the home and even to individual devices. This results in a mix of detailed usage data and control over power access, creating a new form of natural monopoly that is very attractive to investors. At higher resolutions, substantial bodies of personal data are disclosed.
A commonly-cited example is the discovery by local government agencies of unregistered backyard swimming pools. Aerial surveillance from lower altitudes used to be sufficiently expensive to restrict its application to activities with high economic value or a military purpose. A dramatic change in the cost-profile has occurred since about I have it in my iPod Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 25 June Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 11 June Hybrid Games.
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