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Energy Nutrition self-care self-image. Pack: Self-Image. Pack: Speaking. Pack: Cooking. Body Energy Nutrition. Pack: Conquering Cancer. It includes all of the sectors normally considered part of the ICT industries in the information, service and manufacturing industries. The millennial generation, which recently surpassed the baby boomers as the largest generation, 40 is also the most racially and ethnically diverse.
As more millennials enter the workforce and older individuals retire, the racial and ethnic diversity of the workforce is expected to continue to increase. Even as the diversity of the workforce is increasing, significant inequalities exist. Social, economic, racial, and political backgrounds are highly correlated with academic achievement, economic opportunity, income, and social mobility.
For example, the wealth gap between racial and ethnic groups has widened since the Great Recession; the Pew Research Center estimated that the median net worth of white households was 13 times that of African American households up from a factor of 10 in , and a factor of 6 from and 10 times that of Hispanic households up slightly from a factor of 8 in While an increasing number of African Americans and Hispanics have been attending postsecondary institutions, and representation of these groups at top-ranked colleges has grown slightly since the s, significant disparities remain.
Of the net new enrollments from to , the majority more than 80 percent of white students went to selective colleges, while the majority more than 70 percent of African American and Hispanic students attended open-admissions 2- and 4-year colleges. In the long term, disparities in opportunity and achievement, and racial and ethnic isolation by school selectivity, will keep some workers at a disadvantage in meeting current and changing workforce requirements.
In response, some organizations are increasing investments in.
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Burns, K. Barton, and S. Kochhar and R. Carnevale and J. The stagnation of median wages discussed in Chapter 3 and the contingent nature of parts of the current workforce may be correlated with the continued decline in reported employee job satisfaction. According to one study, job satisfaction was at The decreases were most pronounced in the areas of job security, health coverage, and sick leave policies.
In spite of increased hiring, only Another potential source of decreased job satisfaction may be that employers are offering fewer benefits. IT not only affects the nature of work and the labor market, but it also reshapes organizations by changing internal and geographical divisions of labor. Adoption of IT alone has not been sufficient to guarantee gains in productivity; new technologies must be accompanied by changes in the organizational structure of firms, including human resource practices.
Bezrukova, K. Jehn, and C. Spell, , Reviewing diversity training: Where we have been and where we should go, Academy of Management Learning and Education 11 2 Alhejji, T. Garavan, R. Carbery, F. Mitchell, R. Ray, and B. Brynjolfsson and L. Hitt, Beyond computation: Information technology, organizational transformation and business performance, Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 4 Bloom, B.
Eifert, A. Mahajan, D. McKenzie, and J. Roberts, , Does management matter? Evidence from India, Quarterly Journal of Economics 1 Because policies and macro-institutional frameworks are becoming increasingly inadequate for this bewildering array of changes, new macro-institutional responses may be necessary. Each of these topics is addressed in turn. Many companies took advantage of the range of technological opportunities of the late s to create vertically integrated firms, an organizational form that combined many stages of the production process.
The auto industry, surrounded by its various suppliers within the Detroit area, is a prime example of this structure. Over time, integrated functional organizations developed a distinct system of employment relations, distinguished by long job tenure, internal promotion structures, and an acceptance of trade and industrial unions as the main vehicle for worker voice and protection.
Gradual but transformative improvements in computer and communication technology reduced the need for geographic proximity with suppliers. They also enabled a finer division of labor, parts of which could be easily outsourced. Computerized communication and information technologies allowed firms to offshore many stages of production to parts of the world where they could be performed more cheaply often because labor was cheaper.
Products such as the iPod, although designed in the United States, are produced by combining more than parts, produced in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, that are assembled in China. Piore and C. Kochan, H. Katz, and R. Kraemer, G. Linden, J. Even for products that are produced domestically, geographical proximity plays less of a role than it did in the 19th and 20th centuries.
As a result of these changes, organizational theories have begun to speak of network forms of organizing as an alternative to markets and hierarchies. IT can enable teamwork in the absence of co-presence and has enabled the rise of distributed teams. On the one hand, distributed teaming enables firms to take advantage of pockets of expertise regardless of where they exist and to have someone available to work on a project literally 24 hours a day. Such teams are composed of members that primarily, and in some cases only, interact via technological means.
However, the rise of distributed teams has created numerous organizational challenges, ranging from communication breakdowns and problems in the production process to cultural misunderstandings, incongruent work ethics, and the inability of team members to identify accurately. Powell, , Neither market nor hierarchy: Network forms of organization, pp.
Staw and L. Cummings, eds. Cascio, , The future world of work: Implications for human resource costing and accounting, Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting 3 2 Fiore, E. Salas, H. Cuevas, and C. Bowers, , Distributed coordination space: Toward a theory of distributed team process and performance, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 4 : Similarly, the use of interdisciplinary teams IDTs has also gained popularity, namely in the area of health, but its usage is beginning to take root in corporate and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM fields as well.
Such teams are able to collectively provide more to patients. However, as the prevalence of IDTs grows, organizations will have to increasingly contend with the challenges such teams face; it has been suggested that employees from different disciplines may differ in regard to training, professional values, understanding of team roles, communication skills, vocabulary, and approaches to problem solving.
These problems can negatively affect team performance. For example, teamwork failures in interdisciplinary health-care teams have been linked to reduced quality of patient care. Conversely, enhanced teamwork in such teams has been. Barley, , The lure of the virtual, Organization Science ; P. Hinds and S. Mortensen and P.
Hinds, , Conflict and shared identity in geographically distributed teams, International Journal of Conflict Management 12 3 ; C. Cramton and P. Hinds, , Subgroup dynamics in internationally distributed teams: Ethnocentrism or cross-national learning, Research in Organizational Behavior Cramton, , The mutual knowledge problem and its consequences in geographically dispersed teams, Organization Science 12 3 Kanawattanachai and Y. Yoo, , The impact of knowledge coordination on virtual team performance over time, MIS Quarterly 31 4 Slocum, R.
Detrich, S. Wilczynski, T. Spencer, T. Lewis, and K. Wolfe, , The evidence-based practice of applied behavior analysis, The Behavior Analyst 37 1 Nancarrow, A. Booth, S. Ariss, T. Smith, P. Enderby, and A. Roots, , Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work, Human Resource Health 11 19 , doi: Orchard, V. Curran, and S. Hall, , Interprofessional teamwork: Professional cultures as barriers, Journal of Interprofessional Care 19 Supplement 1 In addition to the changes described above, advances in IT have also helped unravel the foundation of traditional employment relationships.
In particular, Henry Ford was worried about high rates of absenteeism. High wages would reduce turnover, motivate workers to work harder, and create goodwill between employers and employees. Dunn, P. Mills, J. Neily, M. Crittenden, A. Carmack, and J. Manser, , Teamwork and patient safety in dynamic domains of healthcare: A review of the literature, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 53 2 Shapiro and J.
Stiglitz, , Equilibrium unemployment as a worker discipline device, American Economic Review 74 3 ; G. Bewley, , A depressed labor market as explained by participants, American Economic Review 85 2 Osterman, T. Kochan, R. Locke, and M. Kalleberg, B. Reskin, and K. Hudson, , Bad jobs in America: Standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States, American Sociological Review 65 2 Furthermore, while there is much attention to the effects of IT on start-ups and on large, but relatively new, technology companies, traditional companies are also in the midst of a transformation.
Walmart has been a leader in adopting supply-chain management systems, radiofrequency identification tags, and other technologies that enable it to manage its operations more efficiently, better understand customer demand, reduce costs, and substantially increase productivity. Many of its biggest successes came in the s and s, 76 but it is still an important force in retailing and the economy more broadly.
This suggests that a large part of the impact of IT on workers is occurring through traditional firms. As noted by Zeynep Ton, there is wide variation in pay and working conditions in industries such as retail, hospitality, health care, and other big users of labor. The transformation of traditional organizations may have numerous and far-reaching social consequences. Three are highlighted. First, if organizations are now providing less secure and shorter-term employment, workers may not have the financial means to withstand more lengthy spells of unemployment or underemployment.
For workers to flourish in more fluid labor markets, basic skills will probably be even more important than they are today. New education policies may be needed that not only strengthen existing educational institutions so that high schools become much better at providing basic skills as well as vocational skills but also promote new ways of encouraging people to acquire general, portable skills. Although making college more affordable. See, for example, B. Lewis, A. Augerau, M. Cho, B. Johnson, B. Neiman, G. Olazabal, M. Sandler, et al. Simply recommending that more young people attend college may not be sufficient.
Second, as traditional employment relationships decrease, it is unclear how workers will secure the benefits, security, and voice that organizations provided during the midth century. The result of the New Deal was a series of laws that tied permanent employment to having good health-care benefits and pension funds. As long-term employment becomes less common, new ways of providing for health care and pensions for all workers need to be considered that transcend their relationships with particular employers.
For example, one option would be to institute portable pension plans administered by membership organizations dedicated to the well-being of their members. Unions, as already noted, played an important role in the era of bureaucratically organized firms. They not only negotiated higher wages but also better working conditions, which then spread to other industries either through pattern bargaining or because firms wished to avoid being unionized. Unions also provided workers with voice. An oft-used framework for thinking about workplace relations emphasizes the balance between exit, voice, and loyalty.
This framework, although conceptually powerful, has become less applicable today: more workers choose to or are forced to exit despite their willingness to stay. To the degree that exit becomes more attractive than voice, organizations lose the communication channels that traditional unions were able to provide. This may imply the need for new organizational pathways for ensuring that workers continue to have a voice, both about their working conditions as well as broader societal issues. In industries where unionization is in significant decline, the best a union can do is negotiate a better deal for their remaining members, often at the expense of other workers.
New organizational pathways for workers to have an effective voice in the face of increasingly fluid work conditions are becoming even more important. Acemoglu and D.
Autor, , Skills, tasks, and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings, pp. Beaudry, D. Green, and B. Guaranteeing a voice to workers in a more flexible and uncertain economy may require entirely new organizational forms. There are two alternatives of note that have been used in other countries.
The first is the German-style work council, which is as focused on communication and coordination as it is on negotiation.
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Although these councils have flourished in the context of traditional organizations, a more flexible version could play a role in the age of more fluid organizations. The second is the Scandinavian-style industry or occupational union, which represents workers across establishments, thereby enhancing resilience in the face of very high mobility across firms. Once again, the traditional form of these trade unions is probably inadequate for the modern organization because the industry or occupation may not be the right level of aggregation , but it may provide a stepping stone for a more appropriately tailored pathway of communication for the modern age.
The need to rethink these macro-institutions stems from two distinct but related considerations. First, many of the organizational issues that require fundamental modification cannot be done in a decentralized fashion. Making health insurance and pension benefits more portable within the economy is not something that individual firms can achieve. Nor can local communities independently provide a modern social safety net; this requires appropriate tax and redistribution policies from state and federal governments.
One such policy that has been considered in the United States in the past and is currently being tested and studied in the Netherlands is a minimum guaranteed income for all; this has been discussed as a potential safety net against technological or other widespread unemployment. Part of this may be unrelated to technology and may result from a change in the distribution of power between different segments of society or it may be.
However, even these developments may be a result of technological change. Some technological transformations may have increased the political voice and power of some segments of society over others. No matter what its causes, the debate over increasing the responsiveness and accountability of the political process is an important part of the broader debate about how to reshape organizations and institutions to be more congruent with social needs, including vibrant dialogue on how to make better use of new technologies.
Some of this has already taken place in other countries, for example, by enabling greater voter participation and direct input into politics and creating greater transparency. More importantly, in the context of this report, technological developments have at least indirectly shaped how people experience the place of work in their lives. For example, prior to the development of the clock and eventually electrical lighting, work time and personal time were largely synchronized to daily and seasonal cycles.
Stints of work grew increasingly longer until, after decades of union agitation, Congress eventually passed the Fair Labor Standards Act of , which limited the standard work week to a maximum of 40 hours and mandated premium pay for additional hours. After working an 8-hour shift, workers returned to their homes exhausted and fatigued, but the evenings were theirs to use. Over the last several decades, researchers have accumulated a large body of research on work-family balance, and most of the evidence points toward a single conclusion: work has begun to infiltrate times and places it previously did not and vice versa , potentially leading to an increase in work-family conflict.
Walker and W. Jacobs and K.
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Murray and A. A theoretical exploration of work, stress and burnout of technologically tethered workers, Journal of Individual Employment Rights Dabbish and R. Chesley, , Blurring boundaries? Linking technology use, spillover, individual distress, and family satisfaction, Journal of Marriage and Family ; K. Renaud, J. Ramsay, and M. Shall I deal with it now? There is evidence that the blurring of work and other aspects of life are especially common among people in managerial, professional, and technical occupations.
In short, information and communication technologies appear to be eliminating the boundary between work and the other arenas of life that were forged by the combination of technologies, institutions, and social understandings that marked the midth century. Over the last several decades, employers have increasingly used information technologies to monitor the productivity and diligence of white-collar workers, even as the shift from physical to mental tasks reduced the direct visibility of many types of work. The use of data collected by computers and information technologies enables employers to impose and enforce productivity objectives and to reward and punish workers who do or do not achieve those objectives.
Although this kind of monitoring is widespread in call centers, for example, where workers are expected to handle a set number of calls per unit time and to spend a set number of minutes per call, monitoring also extends to workers of all types, including professionals. R Barley, D. Meyerson, and S. Grodal, , Email as a source and symbol of stress, Organization Science Mazmanian, J.
Yates, and W. Schieman and P. Glavin, , Trouble at the border? Glavin, , Education and work-family conflict: Explanations, contingencies and mental health consequences, Social Forces 89 4 Batt and L. Moynihan, , The viability of alternative call center production models, Human Resource Management Journal 12 4 ; R. Batt, V. Doellgast, and H. Kwon, , Service management and employment systems in U. Collins and L. Brainard, eds. Indeed, out of social interactions at the workplace and the work that people actually perform, they construct significant components of their identities and self-worth.
Communication technologies shape many aspects of when, where, and how social interactions occur and the tenor of their experience. If work becomes less centered on a specific geographic locality, this will fundamentally transform the nature of the social interactions around work. Offshored call-center workers provide an illuminating example. On the one hand, the call center itself may continue to serve as a site of interaction, camaraderie, and competition, while on the other hand, it shifts relations at home when a spouse, sibling, or parent works nights and learns to speak in another accent.
Other benefits of virtual working include the potential for greater inclusion of people with disabilities and those with children or elder dependents. But not every organization or person will find that this model works for them. E Bailey and N. Kurland, , A review of telework research: Findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work, Journal of Organizational Behavior 23 4 ; L.
However, working when and where one prefers may become an option for more people with the increased access to work through digital devices and Internet connections, including open-call work platforms, and more opportunities for just-in-time contracts and other temporary work arrangements. Such arrangements preclude the opportunity for social engagement and the sustained work relationships afforded by spatial and organizational co-location. Under such circumstances, what role will work play in shaping social identities and sense of self?
At the moment, very little is known about this topic. There is a long stream of research on careers that suggests that people will construct careers and identities whether or not they have the support of an organization or a recognized occupation. Conceivably, under such conditions, people will reemphasize connections with nonwork friends and family.
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They may also construct unique careers by acquiring additional skills and achievements. But, coupled with the previously discussed precariousness of making a living in contingent labor markets, the committee suspects that these changing employment relations will alter the role work has played in how people assess their sense of value and self-worth. Gender is yet another aspect of the interplay between technology and work. Most new occupations begin without a gender label, until they are filled by employers and gender correlations emerge.
To the extent that IT and automation may contribute to the displacement of jobs, they are likely to encroach more slowly on many types of care and interactive service work—occupations that have been traditionally populated by women. Indeed, many of the fastest-growing occupations are in labor-intensive service and care occupations, such as child care, nursing, and health technicians. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the health care and social assistance sector is projected to experience the.
Barley, , Careers, identities, and institutions: The legacy of the Chicago School of Sociology, pp. Arthur, D. Hall, and B. Lawrence, eds. Rethinking attitudes toward these roles could benefit women as well as men, since the persistent gender gap in pay is tightly intertwined with occupational segregation by gender.
Technological progress affects the demand for education and training and how education and training are provided.
The common perception that college students are all young adults who enroll in a 4-year college upon completion of high school is no longer correct. These students enroll for many reasons, especially to become more effective or competitive in their current jobs. In the 21st-century economy, higher levels of educational attainment correlate to higher earnings in a given field.
However, earnings can vary greatly from field to field, so skills and field of training are an important currency in job markets. Reskin and P. Carnevale, N. Smith, M. Melton, and E. Carnevale, S. Rose, and B. This requires an educational system that provides access to continuing education relevant to the changing nature of work. It also requires a primary and secondary education that prepares students to be flexible learners who are capable of acquiring more diverse skills over time.
At the same time, IT is changing how education is provided—both the nature of coursework, and access to education via the Internet. Organizations such as Coursera, edX, and Khan Academy offer hundreds of online courses, and companies such as Udacity now team with employers to create and deliver online training in areas that enable employees to move up the career ladder and acquire skills in high demand.
The promise of change in online education is enabled by a combination of broad access to the Internet, ease of creating video and recorded lectures and hosting them e. Although this model of online education is still young and its eventual impact unproven, it does offer the promise of a potentially significant increase in access to education.
By globalizing the delivery of education, it also holds the potential of giving students access to the best teachers worldwide, although the extent of this access will be limited to the volume of participating students. Despite the increased availability of courses and educational materials over the Internet, there is a large skew in the utility of this content to different types of students and in the educational topics covered. Furthermore, as discussed in Chapter 2 , there is evidence that online courses benefit most those students who already have well-developed learning skills and a strong educational background, and may leave students already behind in education even further behind.
In contrast to MOOC massive open online course models such as those promoted by Coursera or edX, some traditional universities have been engaged in distance education for 40 years or more, ranging from radio and television programs to web-based offerings.
Postal Service. The difference in perspectives may be due in part to differences in assumptions about the content what and form for whom of higher education, and not just its mechanisms for delivery how. As for what needs to be learned by future employees, the situation is even more complex. Surveys of employers show that they evaluate both elements of domain knowledge things one knows about and specific skills things one knows how to do when considering employment readiness.
Casner-Lotto, L. Barrington, and M. Garrett, B. Caldwell, E. Harris, and M. Gonzalez, , Six dimensions of expertise: A more comprehensive definition of cognitive expertise for team coordination, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 10 2 ; J. Winterton, F. Delamare-Le Deist, and E. As IT continues to impact the evolution of types and numbers of jobs available, as well as the skills required for these positions, educational options must shift as well. It is in the best interest of society to develop a system that enables everyone who wants to work to have employable skills.
If this does not happen, societal tensions will mount, and those unable to adapt will be left further behind and dependent upon social safety nets.