PDF Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater

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Physical-chemical plants are commonly used for industrial effluents purification. They can treat, in addiction to specific chemicals, a wide range of pollutants, depending on inlet flow and effluent characteristic.

Chemical-Physical Wastewater Treatment Technologies | DAS

They can be used as treatment for mechanical workshops, car washes, paint, ports, shipyard layover and activities in the marine environment. The design and implementation of this type of equipments requires a high degree of applied detailed engineering knowledge and expertise. The process consists of a series of physical treatments and chemical reactions, followed by a separation phase of the insoluble fraction sludge flakes by sedimentation, sludge dewatering and filtering.

Chemical wastewater treatment plant alters chemical water conditions to a degree where harmful substances, dissolved in wastewater, can be easily separated. Precipitation, ionic exchange, flocculation or UV-treatment are other options to remove harmful substances from the wastewater. An upstream primary treatment, as sedimentation and oil removal, is often required to avoid clogging in follow steps.

Treatment of Water and Wastewater for Reuse and Energy Generation-Emerging Technologies

A final filtration step activated carbon is often adopted in order to remove residual suspended material and reagent traces. The treatment works with a constant flow rate or discontinuous one batch system ; therefore, depending on incoming flow, equalization tanks upstream and downstream are very useful for treatment efficiency.

Sludge is collected, treated and stored in filter bags or on a tape that must be periodically replaced. Supernatant must be introduced in the treatments cycle, for example in the equalization tank. System needs pumps, pH meter, dosing pumps, control panel more often equipped with PLC and GSM remote alarm module , level and pressure sensors and other optional instruments that can improve automation and safety.

Periodical maintenance is required.

Direct discharge of sewage

For a correct system operation, it is necessary that chemical and physical characteristics of incoming water do not vary significantly, compared with the design data. Temperature must be constantly monitored to work as project range requirements.

1st Edition

The reagents use and handling, the sludge and all chemicals disposal must be handled only by authorized personnel. National and regional regulatory frameworks set the allowable pollutants in the effluent such as for heavy metals, detergents, paints and solvents. Edited by Walid Elshorbagy. Edited by Kostas Voudouris.


Edited by Purna Nayak. Published: May 3rd DOI: Ray Open access peer-reviewed 6. Edited Volume and chapters are indexed in. Open access peer-reviewed 1. Open access peer-reviewed 2. Open access peer-reviewed 3. Open access peer-reviewed 4.

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Open access peer-reviewed 5. Open access peer-reviewed 6.

Open access peer-reviewed 7. Open access peer-reviewed 8.